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Hicksville

Sammenligning av USA og Nederland.

* In May 2004, the first rigorous study comparing pot use in the Netherlands and the U.S. was published in the American Journal of Public Health. The study, funded by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Dutch Ministry of Health, compared San Francisco and Amsterdam to find that about 75% of the respective populations had used cannabis less than once per week or not at all in the year before their interviews with researchers. The study further revealed no indication that the decriminalization of marijuana in the Netherlands led to earlier use or more consumption. There was also no evidence in either city to back the common refrain that marijuana serves as a gateway drug. Other Dutch studies have shown that the percentage of people who regularly use either cannabis or other drugs is actually lower in the Netherlands than in most other EU countries. In Amsterdam alone, the Center for Drug Research found that 55% of people who admitted to having tried marijuana ended up only using it a few dozen times or less.

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Guest BK

Mats, om jeg må få si det; Du er en kjempekar, som nettopp brukte mye av din tid til å hjelpe dine medstonere. Sånt arbeid setter jeg og de fleste på dette forumet pris på!

Du fortjener all ros! Respekt til deg, BHicks! Jolly good job! :(

Nå forventer jeg egentlig at denne posten blir STICKY, admin dudes! :(

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Even Ganja

Om en av dere kunne samlet alle adressene på et skriv, så skal jeg gjøre den så sticky at de religiøse vil beskylde meg for å besudle dem over nett.

I seg selv er idéen god, men fint om vi bare tar en kort introduksjon med noen hyggelige ord (?) og nevner så disse adressene nedover etter de velvalgte epilogiske ord.

Can you do that for me?

Please? Oh, sleazyplease!

-ganja+

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Hicksville

Høres ut som litt av et prosjekt Even, hehe, men kan sikkert se å få gjort det iløpet av morgendagen. Linkene først, så sitater, og så utdragene fra medisinske tidsskrifter, forskningsrapporter og kjendiser?

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Hicksville

En artikkel med litt morsom fakta. Anbefaler alle å pløye igjennom den :D

By Mike Adams, Health Ranger

Source: NewsTarget Network

http://www.newstarget.com/010944.html

USA -- Drugs are bad. Drugs destroy peoples' lives. Didn't you know that marijuana turns regular everyday people into zombie pot smokers? That's why we have a war on drugs in America: to protect our children from potheads.

Drugs are bad. Especially marijuana. I learned this the other day when I visited an elementary school as a guest speaker. The schoolchildren were well trained in describing the dangers of drugs. On command, they would spout out any number of statements describing them.

But then a funny thing happened. I started asking how many of them were on drugs. You know, drugs their doctor prescribed. Drugs that alter brain chemistry to keep them docile, or free of pain, or to dilate their lungs so they could breathe easier.

It turned out that 60% of these schoolchildren were either on drugs at that very moment, or had been on such drugs within the last twelve months. Two-thirds of the teachers were on drugs, too. And it's not at all a stretch to believe that 40% or more of all parents are on drugs. Mild-altering drugs like antidepressants, no less.

A Nation of Drug Addicts

Fact is, we are a nation of drug addicts. We drug ourselves, our elderly and our children on a daily basis.

We do it with prescription medications, over-the-counter pills, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine... and we say it's all fine because those drugs are legal.

But wait a minute, you say. Those legal drugs are different from marijuana. They're FDA-approved drugs, prescribed by a doctor. They have a medical purpose.

Oh really? Ritalin has a medical purpose? What medical symptoms does Ritalin treat, then? What measurable physiological state is addressed with Ritalin? There are none, of course. Ritalin is an authority drug. It keeps children in line. It makes teachers feel less stress and parents feel less guilt.

Ritalin is a mind-altering narcotic, and yet millions of children are on it today. Its purpose is not to help children, but to make life more convenient for those who manage children.

You think statin drugs have a medical purpose? Think again. In reality, they only have a profit purpose. These drugs were invented to sell pills that manage disease states in people, not that solve any real health problem.

Don't believe me? Just stop taking your statin drugs, if you dare, and watch your cholesterol skyrocket. You'll find out you're a slave to the drug, and no healthier than before.

What's The Difference Between Legal and Illegal Drugs?

So what's the real difference between legal drugs and illegal drugs? Some people think that only illegal drugs are habit-forming. Yet legal drugs can be just as addictive as illegal drugs. Just ask anyone who has tried to quit smoking, go off caffeine, or kick to Oxycontin habit.

So is there some other difference between illegal drugs and legal drugs? People argue that legal drugs are safe.

They're FDA-approved! And yet they fail to recognize that prescription drugs kill more Americans each year than all the crack, meth, and heroin deaths combined.

Okay, then, what about the argument that illegal drugs have no medicinal purpose, and legal drugs do have a medicinal purpose. What about that? Wrong again. Medical marijuana is a medically proven treatment for a variety of conditions, yet marijuana still remains illegal. Even MDMA (now called "Ecstasy" on the street) was long considered an effective "experiential drug" that helped severely traumatized adult patients overcome past pains through improved clarity. At the same time, tobacco smoke has no medical purpose whatsoever, yet cigarettes remain perfectly legal.

No, the real difference between these two classes of drugs is not their medical merit, nor their safety. The real difference is something far more sinister.

It gets right down to answering the question of why DEA agents will raid medical marijuana clinics, yet stand by doing nothing while Americans smoke themselves to death on tobacco.

Want to know the real answer? I very much doubt you do. Because, like most Americans, you won't believe it. You've been blinded to the obvious truth for your whole life, manipulated by the media, and brainwashed by advertising that has turned you into a statistically-validated consumer. You'll think, no, this couldn't possibly be true. The world isn't that unjust, you think. But you're wrong. (Take the free Gullibility Factor test to find out if you're really a mind slave or not...)

Here's the raw, blunt truth about the war on drugs. Drugs are declared legal or illegal based primarily on who benefits from their manufacture, distribution and sale.

Corporate and Government Profits Determine The Legality

Let me put this another way. You know why cigarettes are still legal? Consider this: here's a product that admittedly kills people. It has no health benefit whatsoever. It is a threat to the public health. Yet why does it remain legal? Because states get a cut of cigarette sales thanks to the Big Tobacco settlement a few years back. Keeping cigarettes legal results in desperately-needed revenues for states... revenues that are almost never spent on anti-smoking campaigns, by the way.

It's a classic racket: tobacco is allowed to remain legal because powerful institutions get a cut of the action.

While people die from lung cancer, states get financial resuscitation by taking a cut of every sale. States are trading your health for their revenues.

Think I'm being overly cynical? Let's take a look at gambling laws. Organized gambling is illegal at both the state and federal levels in this country.

Except, of course, when government gets a cut. Casino-friendly states didn't just make casinos legal for the good of the public: they legalized gambling in exchange for a cut of the action. It's a classic, mob-style "protection fee."

If you want to test this theory, launch your own online gambling website. You'll be shut down almost immediately and charged with serious crimes. Gambling and organized betting is illegal, didn't you know? That is, unless the state runs the show, as in state lotteries.

It's right in your face, folks: gambling is legal when powerful corporations or institutions get a piece of the action. It's illegal when they don't. It has nothing at all to do with morality, or protecting people, or doing what's right. It's all about money, pure and simple. Just ask all the corrupt politicians in Missouri who legalized riverboat gambling a few years back.

Getting back to drugs, why do you think alcohol remains a legal drug? Because states and cities tax it. State governments are addicted to alcoholics as a source of revenue to fund their voter entitlement programs that get politicians reelected. Alcohol is a cash machine for cities and states.

With all that in mind, why do you think prescription drugs that kill people remain legal? Think carefully now...

If you guessed, "Because powerful corporations generate billions in profits selling drugs, and governments get a cut of that via state sales taxes and corporate income taxes" then BINGO! You win a prize: a lifetime of free Prozac to keep you happy!

Legal Drugs Generate Windfall Profits for Those in Power

Think about it: if prescription drugs were peddled by street dealers instead of doctors, and if all that revenue changed hands in a non-taxable, non-corporate structure (i.e. street cash), then you'd be seeing full-scale law enforcement action against the makers, distributors and sellers of those drugs. You'd also see endless headlines about how dangerous they were: "Street painkillers kill twelve in South Miami!"

The sad truth of the matter, though, is that those very same painkilling drugs killed at least twelve people in South Miami this very day. But you'll never here about it in the media. Because the news networks are sponsored by drug companies, of course. (The news is not designed to inform you, it's designed to shape your reality, to turn you into a consumer of whatever products the corporations are peddling this year. Didn't you know?)

Every drug that's legal is legal for one simple reason: somebody in a position of power is keeping it legal because they're getting a cut.

Non-Patentable Drugs are Usually Outlawed

That's why medical marijuana is illegal: because government doesn't control its distribution, nor does government receive a financial cut. You can bet your life that if Big Pharma owned the patents on medical marijuana and could set monopolistic prices on it, pot would be perfectly legal to own and smoke. That is, as long as you got it from a pharmacy where prices and distribution could be controlled.

Control is the key here. You think the FDA is discrediting drugs from Canada in order to protect your health? Get real. The FDA is simply protecting the monopoly drug market in this country. It's controlling distribution points in the U.S. in the same way that a crack dealer assassinates his street corner competition. Eliminate the competition, and you can set whatever price you want.

That's why uninformed U.S. consumers pay 30,000% markup prices for drugs that can be acquired in Mexico or Canada for pennies on the dollar.

It's Not About Your Health, It's About Their Wealth

You see, corporate America doesn't really care what you put in your mouth, up your nose, through your lungs or into your veins, as long as they get a cut from it. That's the whole prescription drug racket in a nutshell: it's billions of dollars in annual profits generated from mind-altering (yet legal) drugs that flat-out kill people. Lots of people. Like 100,000 Americans a year (or a lot more if you believe more critical statistics).

So if you've ever wondered why Ritalin -- which has no medical purpose whatsoever -- is perfectly legal, and yet medical marijuana -- which has a well-proven medical purpose -- is outlawed, now you know the answer: because Ritalin makes powerful people rich. And marijuana doesn't.

Anybody can grow marijuana. Drug companies don't control the patents.

Why I Teach People To Be 100% Drug Free

Now, just for the record, I do not personally use any drugs whatsoever (recreational, over-the-counter, prescription or otherwise), and in fact, I teach people to be 100% free of all drugs, including caffeine and alcohol.

I bought into the "just say no to drugs" advice of Nancy Reagan, and I actually applied it to ALL drugs, not just selective drugs.

And as far as I can tell, aside from the Mormons and the Amish, there are only a small percentage of truly drug-free people living in this country. Practically everybody I meet is addicted to at least one of the following: coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, pain meds, prescription drugs or sugar (which alters brain chemistry in drug-like fashion).

At the same time, I'm not at all fooled by this silly "War on Drugs" charade, which is really nothing more than enforcement of corporate drug profits at gunpoint. If we had a genuine war on drugs in this country that really worked to protect the American people we'd send DEA agents into drug company offices and confiscate all the legalized but deadly medications being manufactured, distributed and deceptively sold to unwitting Americans today.

Medical marijuana is a threat to both the profits and power of drug companies, not to mention the credibility of the DEA. Letting grannies smoke pot in California makes DEA agents look silly. If it were allowed, it would also undermine the billions of dollars already spent incarcerating people for "pot crimes." Basically, it would make the whole War on Drugs look stupid. Which it most assuredly is, at least when it comes to marijuana.

I can understand taking a tough stance on hard drugs (crack, meth, heroin, etc.), but arresting cancer patients who smoke joints for pain control sounds a lot more like oppression than law enforcement to me.

So what is the War on Drugs? It's an excuse to control you. It is a system that keeps the population in a state of constant fear so that heroic politicians can get elected on empty promises to "keep fighting the war on drugs!"

The DEA is AWOL On Most Drug Issues

Where is this War on Drugs when it comes to Grandma in the nursing home, who died of a stroke caused by Cox-2 inhibitor drugs? Where is the War on Drugs when little Johnny schoolboy picks up a rifle and blows away his classmates because he's on antidepressants and can't tell the difference between real life and a first-person-shooter video game? Where is the War on Drugs when 16,500 people each year die, shitting digested blood until they pass out and die because that daily dose of aspirin tore a gaping hole in their stomach?

The War on Drugs, you see, turns a blind eye to the death and suffering caused by these drugs. The DEA pretends prescription drugs don't even exist. No prescription drug death has ever been prevented by the DEA as far as I know.

Yet 100,000 Americans are killed each year by FDA-approved drugs.

The DEA has no interest whatsoever in protecting Americans from these drugs. Ever wonder why?

The DEA is properly named, by the way. It's the Drug Enforcement Agency. It's enforcing drugs. The right drugs.

The legal drugs. The drugs that make money for drug companies, drug distributors, drug retailers, cities, states and countries. It's enforcement at gunpoint, and as long as the money keeps flowing, the drugs will stay perfectly legal, regardless of who dies.

The entire distribution system is well in place: the false and misleading television advertising, the outright bribery of drug dealers (doctors), the street corner fulfillment centers (pharmacies), and the coordinating drug lord running the show (the Fraud and Drug Administration). It's a brilliant system for manufacturing, promoting, delivering and selling deadly, addictive drugs to children, adults and seniors while generating corporate profits and tax revenues for cities, states and nations.

And that's the raw truth about the War on Drugs. You may not like it, but now, at least, you know why it exists.

So I have a common sense question for all the people in this country. If you support the War on Drugs, then why are you taking so many drugs yourself? And why are you allowing your children to be drugged?

Source: NewsTarget Network (Taiwan)

Author: Mike Adams, Health Ranger

Published: August 15, 2005

Copyright: 2005 NewsTarget Network

Website: http://www.newstarget.com/

URL: http://www.newstarget.com/010944.html

Contact: http://www.newstarget.com/feedback.html

Edited by BHicks

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Hicksville
Mats, om jeg må få si det; Du er en kjempekar, som nettopp brukte mye av din tid til å hjelpe dine medstonere. Sånt arbeid setter jeg og de fleste på dette forumet pris på!

Du fortjener all ros! Respekt til deg, BHicks! Jolly good job! :D

Nå forventer jeg egentlig at denne posten blir STICKY, admin dudes! :P

Vel, mitt sosiale liv er begrenset hvor jeg bor for øyeblikket (omringet av hva man kan kalle for "tjyvbønder" :ph34r: ) - så slikt "arbeid" som dette er en rein fryd. Hadde det vel vært om jeg var hjemme i Tromsø også, men jo, har mye tid til overs for å si det sånn. ;)

(Takk skal du ha for fine ord uansett!)

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Hicksville

Dette er vel fra noen som burde vite hva de snakker om.

British Columbia Schizophrenia Society.

Q. Do street drugs ever cause schizophrenia?

A. No. Street drugs do not actually cause schizophrenia. Since some people who take street drugs may show schizophrenia-like symptoms, people who have schizophrenia are sometimes accused of being "high" on drugs. A person suffering from psychotic symptoms may also become involved in substance abuse, where having such symptoms in the setting of getting high is seen as normal.

http://www.bcss.org/information_centre/sch...a/facts.html#15

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KOCMOHABT

skriv en BOK!

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Anarkisten

arg!! hadde jeg bare sett denne posten før.. Jeg hadde en fil liggende med rundt 50-60 linker til forskjellige sider, både statlige og private, om fakta rundt cannabis. Sletta den etter at jeg sendte den til personen som spurte om den igår.. Har sendt mail og spurt om han kan sende den.. :D

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Guest BK
arg!! hadde jeg bare sett denne posten før.. Jeg hadde en fil liggende med rundt 50-60 linker til forskjellige sider, både statlige og private, om fakta rundt cannabis. Sletta den etter at jeg sendte den til personen som spurte om den igår.. Har sendt mail og spurt om han kan sende den.. :)

Auda... Håper du får den tilbake, Anarkisten <_<

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Hicksville

Kan være greit med noe som viser til lavere bruk av cannabis hvor det har blitt normalisert.

Source: Los Angeles Times (CA)

Pot Use Down Where Medical Use OK

Study shows a sharp decline in teens smoking marijuana in states, including California, where the drug is legal for medicinal purposes.

SACRAMENTO — Bucking dire predictions by anti-drug warriors, the 10 states that approved medical marijuana laws over the last decade have experienced sharp declines in cannabis use among teenagers, according to a new study by a marijuana advocacy group.

California has seen usage among ninth-graders drop 47% since 1996, the year the state became the nation's first to legalize medical marijuana. Over the same period, the nation as a whole experienced a 43% decline among eighth-graders.

The study, released today, is based on data from national and state surveys, which show a drop in marijuana use by teens.

Although debate over medical marijuana is often shaded by concerns about increasing drug abuse among young people, the report suggested the opposite has been true.

The study's authors were Mitch Earleywine, a State University of New York psychology professor, and Karen O'Keefe, a legislative analyst with Marijuana Policy Project, the organization that commissioned the research based on state and federal data.

That data "strongly suggests" that approval of medical marijuana has not increased recreational use of cannabis among adolescents, Earleywine and O'Keefe concluded. And the decline in many of the states with medical marijuana laws is "slightly more favorable" than trends nationwide, they said.

California, Washington and Colorado have all experienced greater drops in marijuana usage than have occurred nationwide. Only three states with medical marijuana laws — Maine, Oregon and Nevada — have lagged behind the national drop in teen marijuana use, the report said.

"If medical marijuana laws send the wrong message to children," the authors said, widespread attention to the debate "would be expected to produce a nationwide increase in marijuana use, the largest increase in those states enacting medical marijuana laws. But just the opposite has occurred."

Tom Riley, of the president's Office of National Drug Control Policy, said the drop in teen drug use across the nation is attributable to the federal anti-drug advertising campaign in recent years, including $125 million spent during the federal fiscal year that ends Oct. 1.

Medical marijuana has only clouded that pitch, he said.

"It's foolish to give kids a message that marijuana can be helpful to them," Riley said, adding that all Americans "should be glad that teen drug use is going down. If the drug legalizers are recognizing that, too, I think that says something."

But the researchers sketched a different hypothesis: that medical marijuana shifted the perception among some teens about pot.

"Perhaps medical marijuana laws send a very different message," they wrote. Teens may increasingly consider pot "a treatment for serious illness, not a toy, and requires cautious and careful handling."

The most extensive available data was in California, where a survey of about 6,000 students every two years showed that pot use among teens was climbing before passage of the 1996 medical marijuana law. For all grades, marijuana use dropped significantly between early 1996 and 2004, with the biggest downward shift among ninth-graders.

Between 1996 and 2004, the number of high school freshmen in the state who reported using pot in the last 30 days dropped 47%, while the number of freshmen who had tried cannabis at least once dropped 35%.

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http://www.ypnmagazine.com/news/index.cfm?...ll_news&ID=8205

Youth justice: Cannabis use drops after reclassification

07/09/05

The use of cannabis among 11- to 15-year-olds has dropped since the

Government reclassified the drug in January last year, according to the

first comprehensive figures released since the change.

The Department of Health¹s annual Smoking, drinking and drug use among young

people in England in 2004 report shows that the number of young people who

have taken cannabis in the past year has fallen to 11 per cent, down from 13

per cent for the previous three years.

A spokeswoman for drugs education charity DrugScope said the drop may be

partly because of publicity caused by reclassifying cannabis as a class C

rather than a class B drug. ³Drug use has been fairly stable among this age

group for a couple of years,² she said. ³It is the first drop that we have

seen, which is really positive.²

Overall drug use was also down slightly, from 21 per cent in 2003 to 18 per

cent in 2004. The number of young people who were regular smokers remained

stable at about nine per cent, and the number who had drunk alcohol in the

past week fell from 25 per cent to 23 per cent.

The researchers received responses from 9,715 young people, from 313 schools

across England.

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Guest kkt1986

YIKES! Jeg holder meg stort sett i Aktivist- og nyhetsforumet og coffeeshopen -- MED GOD GRUNN!

Nå som jeg har sett dette, er jeg jo nødt til å lese gjennom alt sammen! ;) Det er bare sånn jeg er. Og så må jeg lese stickyen her på forumet. Den er sikkert interessant... med 75 replies... Hvordan skal jeg få tid til å leve? :S

edit: Nei.. tror heller jeg bare oppsøker den informasjonen jeg trenger når jeg føler jeg trenger å vite noe mer om det. Jeg må få tid til aktivistforumet og et liv utenfor NorCan også. Men jeg vet hvor jeg skal gå når jeg kjeder meg! ;)

All cred. til BHicks og bkvernstuen og alle andre bidragsytere! Takk!

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Hicksville

Eksempel på hvordan hasjrøykere blir behandlet i Norge:

http://debatt.dagbladet.no/debatt/read_pos...hread_id=821340

Alkohol-statestikk som motvekt:

http://www.dagbladet.no/dinside/2002/04/10/323891.html

http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2002/03/18/319848.html

Hasj mot Hooligans:

http://www.dagbladet.no/sport/2000/06/14/207812.html

Soldater får Marihuana:

http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2004/10/03/410115.html

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CANNABIS LINKS

CANNABISNEWS.COM

Constantly updated with international news stories about marijuana. Read it at least once a day.

http://www.cannabisnews.com/

NORML.ORG

The National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws. No-nonsense site with good information about marijuana laws in each state in the U.S.

http://www.norml.org/

more info, read this FAQ:

http://www.norml.org/facts/faq.shtml

MARIJUANANEWS.COM

Current cannabis news and comments by Richard Cowan, a conservative pot activist since the 70's. He has written articles for National Review. He will show you how the media lies and distorts. He shines a bright light on government hypocrisy. Updated a couple times a week.

http://www.marijuananews.com

JACKHERER.COM

Author of The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Jack's web site is a wealth of information about marijuana history, and the uses of hemp. Great site if you are working on a research paper.

http://www.jackherer.com

POT-TV (Marijuana News)

Not what it used to be when Richard Cowan was doing daily marijuana news. Still, worth a look once in a while.

http://pot-tv.net/

OVERGROW.COM

If you're just fed up with the whole sad system and want to have a regular supply of the best weed you've ever smoked, and meet some of the most interesting human beings on the planet:

http://www.overgrow.com

MEDICAL MARIJUANA LINKS

--------------------------------------------

MARIJUANA POLICY PROJECT

http://www.mpp.org/

MARIJUANA.ORG

"Medical marijuana resources from the patients who wrote Proposition 215."

http://www.marijuana.org

DRUG WAR LINKS

--------------------------------------------

DRUGWARFACTS.ORG

A wealth of information.

http://www.drugwarfacts.org/

LINDESMITH.ORG

Another robust, no-nonsense resource for information about the drug war, and how to end it. News, discussion forums, in-depth articles.

http://www.lindesmith.org

MAPINC.ORG

Constantly updated with international news about the drug war. Like Cannabisnews, you can submit articles of your own. Good search engine, great for research.

http://www.mapinc.org

DRUGSENSE.ORG

Another great site of constantly updated info on what's happening in the drug war. Has a good search engine.

http://www.drugsense.org

Here's a big list of email mailing lists related to marijauna and drug law reform:

http://www.drugsense.org/lists

And here's a painful reminder of how many of your tax dollars are being wasted on the failed war on drugs:

http://www.drugsense.org/wodclock.htm

DRUGLIBRARY.ORG

Massive, searchable online library of drug policy presented by the Drug Reform Coordination Network.

http://www.druglibrary.org

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Hicksville

Smoking Pot Doesn't Harm Brain Function - Study

Posted by CN Staff on June 26, 2003 at 22:16:11 PT

By Deena Beasley

Source: Reuters

L.A. -- Smoking marijuana will certainly affect perception, but it does not cause permanent brain damage, researchers from the University of California at San Diego said on Friday in a study.

"The findings were kind of a surprise. One might have expected to see more impairment of higher mental function," said Dr. Igor Grant, a UCSD professor of psychiatry and the study's lead author. Other illegal drugs, or even alcohol, can cause brain damage.

His team analyzed data from 15 previously published, controlled studies into the impact of long-term, recreational cannabis use on the neurocognitive ability of adults.

The studies tested the mental functions of routine pot smokers, but not while they were actually high, Grant said.

The results, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, show that marijuana has only a marginally harmful long-term effect on learning and memory.

No effect at all was seen on other functions, including reaction time, attention, language, reasoning ability, and perceptual and motor skills.

Grant said the findings are particularly significant amid questions about marijuana's long-term toxicity now that several states are considering whether to make it available as a medicinal drug.

In California, growing marijuana for medical purposes is legal under a voter-approved law.

The UCSD analysis of studies involving 704 long-term cannabis users and 484 nonusers was sponsored by a state-supported program that oversees research into the use of cannabis to treat certain diseases.

Anecdotal evidence has shown that marijuana can help ease pain in patients with diseases like multiple sclerosis or prevent severe nausea in cancer patients, but the effects have yet to be proven in controlled studies, Grant said.

The UCSD research team said the problems observed in learning and forgetting suggest that long-term marijuana use results in selective memory defects, but said the impact was of a very small magnitude.

"If we barely find this tiny effect in long-term heavy users of cannabis, then we are unlikely to see deleterious side effects in individuals who receive cannabis for a short time in a medical setting," Grant said.

In addition, he noted that heavy marijuana users often abuse other drugs, such as alcohol and amphetamines, which also might have long-term neurological effects.

Some of the research studies used in the analysis were limited by the numbers of subjects or insufficient information about factors like exposure to other drugs or whether participants suffered from conditions like depression or personality disorders.

"If it turned out that new studies find that cannabis is helpful in treating some medical conditions, this enables us to see a marginal level of safety," Grant said.

Source: Reuters UK

Author: Deena Beasley

Published: June 27, 2003

Copyright: 2003 Reuters

Related Articles & Web Site:

Chronic Cannabis Use

http://freedomtoexhale.com/ccu.pdf

Heavy Pot Use Clouds Mental Function: Study

http://cannabisnews.com/news/thread14858.shtml

Long-Term Pot Use Takes Toll on Brain

http://cannabisnews.com/news/thread12160.shtml

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/sto...ienceandHealth/

Lab rats given drug 100 times as strong as pot

By DAWN WALTON

Friday, October 14, 2005 Posted at 3:57 AM EDT

From Friday's Globe and Mail

Calgary — Forget the stereotype about dopey potheads. It seems marijuana could be good for your brain.

While other studies have shown that periodic use of marijuana can cause memory loss and impair learning and a host of other health problems down the road, new research suggests the drug could have some benefits when administered regularly in a highly potent form.

Most "drugs of abuse" such as alcohol, heroin, cocaine and nicotine suppress growth of new brain cells. However, researchers found that cannabinoids promoted generation of new neurons in rats' hippocampuses.

Hippocampuses are the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory, and the study held true for either plant-derived or the synthetic version of cannabinoids.

"This is quite a surprise," said Xia Zhang, an associate professor with the Neuropsychiatry Research Unit at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon.

"Chronic use of marijuana may actually improve learning memory when the new neurons in the hippocampus can mature in two or three months," he added.

The research by Dr. Zhang and a team of international researchers is to be published in the November issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, but their findings are on-line now.

The scientists also noticed that cannabinoids curbed depression and anxiety, which Dr. Zhang says, suggests a correlation between neurogenesis and mood swings. (Or, it at least partly explains the feelings of relaxation and euphoria of a pot-induced high.)

Other scientists have suggested that depression is triggered when too few new brain cells are created in the hippocampus. One researcher of neuropharmacology said he was "puzzled" by the findings.

As enthusiastic as Dr. Zhang is about the potential health benefits, he warns against running out for a toke in a bid to beef up brain power or calm nerves.

The team injected laboratory rats with a synthetic substance called HU-210, which is similar, but 100 times as potent as THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the compound responsible for giving marijuana users a high.

They found that the rats treated regularly with a high dose of HU-210 -- twice a day for 10 days -- showed growth of neurons in the hippocampus. The researchers don't know if pot, which isn't as pure as the lab-produced version, would have the same effect.

"There's a big gap between rats and humans," Dr. Zhang points out.

But there is a lot of interest -- and controversy -- around the use of cannabinoids to improve human health.

Cannabinoids, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used to address pain, nausea, vomiting, seizures caused by epilepsy, ischemic stroke, cerebral trauma, tumours, multiple sclerosis and a host of other maladies.

There are herbal cannabinoids, which come from the cannabis plant, and the bodies of humans and animals produce endogenous cannabinoids. The substance can also be designed in the lab.

Cannabinoids can trigger the body's two cannabinoid receptors, which control the activity of various cells in the body.

One receptor, known as CB1, is found primarily in the brain. The other receptor, CB2, was thought to be found only in the immune system.

However, in a separate study to be published today in the journal Science, a group of international researchers have located the CB2 receptor in the brain stems of rats, mice and ferrets.

The brain stem is responsible for basic body function such as breathing and the gastrointestinal tract. If stimulated in a certain way, CB2 could be harnessed to eliminate the nausea and vomiting associated with post-operative analgesics or cancer and AIDS treatments, according to the researchers.

"Ultimately, new therapies could be developed as a result of these findings," said Keith Sharkey, a gastrointestinal neuroscientist at the University of Calgary, lead author of the study.

(Scientists are trying to find ways to block CB1 as a way to decrease food cravings and limit dependence on tobacco.)

When asked whether his findings explain why some swear by pot as a way to avoid the queasy feeling of a hangover, Dr. Sharkey paused and replied: "It does not explain the effects of smoked or inhaled or ingested substances."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Statestikk:

Number of American deaths per year that result directly or primarily from the following selected causes nationwide, according to World Almanacs, Life Insurance Actuarial (death) Rates, and the last 20 years of U.S. Surgeon Generals' reports.

TOBACCO 340,000 to 450,000

ALCOHOL (Not including 50% of all highway deaths and 65% of all murders) 150,000+

ASPIRIN (Including deliberate overdose) 180 to 1,000+

CAFFEINE (From stress, ulcers, and triggering irregular heartbeats, etc.) 1,000 to 10,000

"LEGAL" DRUG OVERDOSE (Deliberate or accidental) from legal, prescribed or patent medicines and/or mixing with alcohol - e.g. Valium/alcohol 14,000 to 27,000

ILLICIT DRUG OVERDOSE (Deliberate or accidental) from all illegal drugs. 3,800 to 5,200

MARIJUANA 0

P.S ..Morsomt å se ulovlige rusmiddler gå under navnet "illicit," noe som betyr at disse rusmiddlene ikke bare er ulovlige, men at det viser dårlig moral å bruke de. :D

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Avhengighet:

The Family Council on Drug Awareness offers this answer: “Is Marijuana Addictive? No, it is not [8]. Most users are moderate consumers who smoke it socially to relax. We now know that 10% of our population have “addictive personalities” and they are neither more nor less likely to overindulge in cannabis than in anything else. On a relative scale, marijuana is less habit forming than either sugar or chocolate but more so than anchovies. Sociologists report a general pattern of marijuana use that peaks in the early adult years, followed by a period of leveling off and then a gradual reduction in use [9].”

Reiter cited Italian researchers who gave pure THC, the main active ingredient of cannabis, to 9 volunteers whose serum melatonin levels went up 4,000% in the next two hours!” (Reiter) It appears that we can conclude that the dangers of Marijuana addiction are non-existent, and if anything, Marijuana fights addiction. “Meanwhile, advocates of marijuana-law reform must learn to use the latest research as a tool to demonstrate that marijuana users have been right for a long, long time. The remaining challenge is to confront the irrationality of America's current public policy.” (Gettman)

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Hicksville

Marijuana Smoking Does Not Cause Lung Cancer, UCLA Expert Dr. Tashkin Concludes

http://www.canorml.org/healthfacts/tashkinlungcancer.html

Marijuana less cancerous than tobacco

http://www.upi.com/HealthBusiness/view.php...17-053500-7215r

Politimester snakker ut

http://alternet.org/drugreporter/27083/?co...ID=49182#c49187

Land med legalisert/avkriminalisert cannabis har færre brukere enn land med forbud mot cannabis.

http://ar2001.emcdda.eu.int/en/chap1/drug-use.html

Skoleoppgave på legalisering (A+) (;))

http://www.overgrow.com/edge/showthread.ph...64&pagenumber=1

Hvordan penger blir fordelt på alkoholskader i norge:

De 20 milliardene alkohol koster oss fordeler seg slik:

Helse- og sosialkostnader                        snaut 2 milliarder

Arbeidsliv (sykefravær, kvalitetstap etc.) drøyt 12 milliarder

Alkoholrelatert kriminalitet                        snaut 6 milliarder

Uttalelse av Hans Olav Fekjær, rusforsker i Blåkors.

"Helt opplagt. Hasj er mer knyttet til innadvendt, mediterende adferd. Sprit til utagering. Ingen seriøse forskere hevder at hasj er knyttet til vold. Nils Christie har sagt at "volden i Norge drypper av alkohol". Et argument er at all rusmisbruk begynner med hasj. Jeg pleier å si at overgangen fra hasj til heroin er som fra sykkel til motorsykkel: Alle motorsyklister har startet med sykkel. Men det er ikke mange som går videre. Jeg ville finne det fornuftig med en utjevning av reglene mellom alkohol og cannabis. Cannabis står for en veldig liten del av russkadevirkningene i Norge."

Cannabis and Lung Cancer

Martin Martinez

I attended the 1st National Clinical Conference on Medical Marijuana in Iowa in 1998. Arguably the most learned man on the subject of the effects of smoke on the lungs is named Donald Tashkin, Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care, at UCLA. He spoke for almost an hour at the Conference, showing slides of smoke-browned lungs. He showed how marijuana smoke seems to push pollutants towards the outer lining of the lungs. His presentation did not portray marijuana smoke as harmless, but there was no solid evidence of disease associated with the browning of the lungs' outer lining. Donald Tashkin has conducted the most extensive research involving the largest number of long-term marijuana-only smokers, as well as multi-drug smokers--marijuana, tobacco, cocaine, and other substances, for several decades. His critique of marijuana smoke was completely non-committal. (Considering the government is his largest source of funding, there is little doubt why his lecture at the first medical cannabis conference was short and unsupportive.) When Dr. Tashkin finished his speech, he did not wait to answer questions. He grabbed his materials and bolted for the door. I raced after him and stopped him on the steps outside the conference hall. I showed him the passages I had written about his research in The New Prescription. I stood there and watched him read everything I had written about his work. He agreed that my synopsis was correct. Then I asked him the $64,000 question. I said, "Do you know of any cases of marijuana-only smokers who had lung cancer?" He said "Yes, there is one." Then he smiled, explaining, "He was sixteen years old." We both smiled, knowing a teenager could not possibly have sufficient exposure to marijuana smoke to cause lung cancer--his cancer was clearly due to some other cause.

Avhengighet:

The Family Council on Drug Awareness offers this answer: “Is Marijuana Addictive? No, it is not [8]. Most users are moderate consumers who smoke it socially to relax. We now know that 10% of our population have “addictive personalities” and they are neither more nor less likely to overindulge in cannabis than in anything else. On a relative scale, marijuana is less habit forming than either sugar or chocolate but more so than anchovies. Sociologists report a general pattern of marijuana use that peaks in the early adult years, followed by a period of leveling off and then a gradual reduction in use [9].”

Reiter cited Italian researchers who gave pure THC, the main active ingredient of cannabis, to 9 volunteers whose serum melatonin levels went up 4,000% in the next two hours!” (Reiter) It appears that we can conclude that the dangers of Marijuana addiction are non-existent, and if anything, Marijuana fights addiction. “Meanwhile, advocates of marijuana-law reform must learn to use the latest research as a tool to demonstrate that marijuana users have been right for a long, long time. The remaining challenge is to confront the irrationality of America's current public policy.” (Gettman)

Amerikansk Statestikk:

Number of American deaths per year that result directly or primarily from the following selected causes nationwide, according to World Almanacs, Life Insurance Actuarial (death) Rates, and the last 20 years of U.S. Surgeon Generals' reports.

TOBACCO 340,000 to 450,000

ALCOHOL (Not including 50% of all highway deaths and 65% of all murders) 150,000+

ASPIRIN (Including deliberate overdose) 180 to 1,000+

CAFFEINE (From stress, ulcers, and triggering irregular heartbeats, etc.) 1,000 to 10,000

"LEGAL" DRUG OVERDOSE (Deliberate or accidental) from legal, prescribed or patent medicines and/or mixing with alcohol - e.g. Valium/alcohol 14,000 to 27,000

ILLICIT DRUG OVERDOSE (Deliberate or accidental) from all illegal drugs. 3,800 to 5,200

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-Norsk narkopolitikk er en katastrofe

http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2002/07/30/344576.html

Hun mener norsk narkotikapolitikk altfor lenge har tviholdt på tanken om det rusfrie samfunnet. Norge har 70 overdosedødsfall per million innbyggere. Sveits har 29, mens Nederland er nede i fire. Den dystre statistikken plasserer Norge på toppen i Europa.

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Guest BK

Bra, absolutt brilliant! :blink:

Så at det lå en liten indeks inni her et sted, så jeg gjorde posten sticky, det skulle bare mangle... :)

Jeg skal flytte indeksen til første post, sånn så det blir litt enklere å finne frem!

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Hicksville

God idé! :-j

Edit: rydder litt i tråden da..

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Stabil narkotikasituasjon i Europa

EU's organ for å overvåke narkotikasituasjonen, EMCDDA, utgir nå sin årlige rapport, som er spekket med tall og vurderinger. Rapporten omfatter i utgangspunktet EU-landene pluss Norge. Denne gang omtaler rapporten også situasjonen i Øst-Europa. Rapporten publiseres på 12 språk.

Generelt rapporteres nå liten endring i bruken av "stoff". Cannabis er som før overlegent mest brukt blant de ulovlige stoffene. Storbritannia ligger på topp i bruk av cannabis, amfetamin og "ecstasy". Heroin er svært lite brukt men står bak de fleste problemene, herunder kriminalitet, infeksjonssykdommer og overdoser. "Tungt narkotikamisbruk" er det minst av i Tyskland og Nederland. Antall overdosedødsfall ser ut til å ha stabilisert seg på 7-8000 til sammen i hele området. Antall dødsfall er bare halvparten så stort som i USA, som har 28% færre innbyggere.

I 1996, var det nøyaktig fire ganger så mange overdosedødsfall fra heroin i Oslo som i storbyen Amsterdam. Og sjefen for helsemyndighetenes narkotikaavdeling i Amsterdam, Dirc van der Woude, har sagt følgende: "Vi har nesten ikke heroinavhengig ungdom mer. Den gjennomsnittlige heroinmisbruker i Nederland er rundt 40 år. Dette skyldes åpenbart at vi har trukket en skillelinje mellom de milde og harde narkotiske stoffene, og tillatt begrenset salg av de milde stoffene." Nederland innførte for ca. 20 år siden Europas mest liberale narkotikapolitikk.

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t0ffel

RAND study

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis.

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Hicksville

Ny rapport om cannabisbruk og depresjon.

Is pot a real bummer? Study doesn't think so

UAlbany professor part of research linking drug to being less depressed; Feds blast findings

Hele artikkelen

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Cannabisrus- og bilkjøring

Executive Summary of Driving Impairment Effects of Alcohol & Cannabis (1994)

The Influence of Cannabis on Driving. TRL, Britain (PDF 1.5 MB)

UK Lords Report On Cannabis And Driving.

Alcohol Impairs Driving More Than Marijuana - New Scientist March 2002

"As someone who spent 35 years wearing a police uniform, I've come to believe that hundreds of thousands of law-enforcement officers commit felony perjury every year testifying about drug arrests."

- Joseph McNamara, former San Jose Chief of Police

Pot Less Harmful Than Alcohol or Tobacco

A single glass of wine will impair your driving more than smoking a joint. And under certain test conditions, the complex way alcohol and cannabis combine to affect driving behaviour suggests that someone who has taken both may drive less recklessly than a person who is simply drunk.

New Scientist March 2002

Marijuana Myth: Marijuana Is A Major Cause Of Highway Accidents.

"Drivers under the influence of marijuana retain insight in their performance and will compensate where they can, for example, by slowing down or increasing effort. As a consequence, THC's adverse effects on driving performance appear relatively small."

Robbe, NHTSA 1993

Marijuana And Actual Driving Performance.

"The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marihuana is a dangerous drug."

- Dr. William Woodward of the American Medical Association, in hearings on the 1921 Marihuana Tax Act

Two Decades Of Research Shows That Marijuana May Actually Reduce Driver Accidents.

Marijuana Not A Factor In Driving Accidents March 29, 1999.

The safety hazards of smoking marijuana and driving are overrated, says U of T researcher Alison Smiley.

Recent research into impairment and traffic accident reports from several countries shows that marijuana taken alone in moderate amounts does not significantly increase a driver's risk of causing an accident -- unlike alcohol, says Smiley, an adjunct professor in the department of mechanical and industrial engineering . While smoking marijuana does impair driving ability, it does not share alcohol's effect on judgment. Drivers on marijuana remain aware of their impairment, prompting them to slow down and drive more cautiously to compensate, she says.

Cannabis/Driving Studies in Australia: No Proof Cannabis Put Drivers At Risk (2001)

UK: Cannabis May MMake You A Safe Driver. (2000)

University of Toronto Study Shows Marijuana Is Not A Facotor In Driving Accidents.

Australia: Cannabis Crash Risk Less: Study. (1998)

Australia: Study Goes To Pot. (1998)

"Professor Hall considers cannabis's contribution to danger on the roads to be very small; in his view the major effect of cannabis use on driving may be in amplifying the impairments caused by alcohol."

UK Lord's Report, 1998

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