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Cannabis og intelligens

Research - Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults (Peter Fried, Barbara Watkinson, Deborah James and Robert Gray, 2002)

"Results: Current marijuana use was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) in a dose- related fashion with a decline in IQ over the ages studied. The comparison of the IQ difference scores showed an average decrease of 4.1 points in current heavy users (p < 0.05) compared to gains in IQ points for light current users (5.8 ), former users (3.5) and non-users (2.6)."

"Interpretation: Current marijuana use had a negative effect on global IQ score only in subjects who smoked 5 or more joints per week. A negative effect was not observed among subjects who had previously been heavy users but were no longer using the substance. We conclude that marijuana does not have a long-term negative impact on global intelligence. Whether the absence of a residual marijuana effect would also be evident in more specific cognitive domains such as memory and attention remains to be ascertained."

Canadian Medical Journal

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Hicksville

Top 10 Pot Studies Government Wished it Had Never Funded

10) MARIJUANA USE HAS NO EFFECT ON MORTALITY:

A massive study of California HMO members funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found marijuana use caused no significant increase in mortality. Tobacco use was associated with increased risk of death. Sidney, S et al. Marijuana Use and Mortality. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 87 No. 4, April 1997. p. 585-590. Sept. 2002.

9) HEAVY MARIJUANA USE AS A YOUNG ADULT WON’T RUIN YOUR LIFE:

Veterans Affairs scientists looked at whether heavy marijuana use as a young adult caused long-term problems later, studying identical twins in which one twin had been a heavy marijuana user for a year or longer but had stopped at least one month before the study, while the second twin had used marijuana no more than five times ever. Marijuana use had no significant impact on physical or mental health care utilization, health-related quality of life, or current socio-demographic characteristics. Eisen SE et al. Does Marijuana Use Have Residual Adverse Effects on Self-Reported Health Measures, Socio-Demographics or Quality of Life? A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Study in Men. Addiction. Vol. 97 No. 9. p.1083-1086. Sept. 1997

:( THE "GATEWAY EFFECT" MAY BE A MIRAGE:

Marijuana is often called a "gateway drug" by supporters of prohibition, who point to statistical "associations" indicating that persons who use marijuana are more likely to eventually try hard drugs than those who never use marijuana — implying that marijuana use somehow causes hard drug use. But a model developed by RAND Corp. researcher Andrew Morral demonstrates that these associations can be explained "without requiring a gateway effect." More likely, this federally funded study suggests, some people simply have an underlying propensity to try drugs, and start with what’s most readily available. Morral AR, McCaffrey D and Paddock S. Reassessing the Marijuana Gateway Effect. Addiction. December 2002. p. 1493-1504.

7) PROHIBITION DOESN’T WORK (PART I):

The White House had the National Research Council examine the data being gathered about drug use and the effects of U.S. drug policies. NRC concluded, "the nation possesses little information about the effectiveness of current drug policy, especially of drug law enforcement." And what data exist show "little apparent relationship between severity of sanctions prescribed for drug use and prevalence or frequency of use." In other words, there is no proof that prohibition — the cornerstone of U.S. drug policy for a century — reduces drug use. National Research Council. Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us. National Academy Press, 2001. p. 193.

6) PROHIBITION DOESN’T WORK (PART II: DOES PROHIBITION CAUSE THE "GATEWAY EFFECT"?):

U.S. and Dutch researchers, supported in part by NIDA, compared marijuana users in San Francisco, where non-medical use remains illegal, to Amsterdam, where adults may possess and purchase small amounts of marijuana from regulated businesses. Looking at such parameters as frequency and quantity of use and age at onset of use, they found no differences except one: Lifetime use of hard drugs was significantly lower in Amsterdam, with its "tolerant" marijuana policies. For example, lifetime crack cocaine use was 4.5 times higher in San Francisco than Amsterdam. Reinarman, C, Cohen, PDA, and Kaal, HL. The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and San Francisco. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 94, No. 5. May 2004. p. 836-842.

5) OOPS, MARIJUANA MAY PREVENT CANCER (PART I):

Federal researchers implanted several types of cancer, including leukemia and lung cancers, in mice, then treated them with cannabinoids (unique, active components found in marijuana). THC and other cannabinoids shrank tumors and increased the mice’s lifespans. Munson, AE et al. Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Sept. 1975. p. 597-602.

4) OOPS, MARIJUANA MAY PREVENT CANCER, (PART II):

In a 1994 study the government tried to suppress, federal researchers gave mice and rats massive doses of THC, looking for cancers or other signs of toxicity. The rodents given THC lived longer and had fewer cancers, "in a dose-dependent manner" (i.e. the more THC they got, the fewer tumors). NTP Technical Report On The Toxicology And Carcinogenesis Studies Of 1-Trans- Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, CAS No. 1972-08-3, In F344/N Rats And B6C3F(1) Mice, Gavage Studies. See also, "Medical Marijuana: Unpublished Federal Study Found THC-Treated Rats Lived Longer, Had Less Cancer," AIDS Treatment News no. 263, Jan. 17, 1997.

3) OOPS, MARIJUANA MAY PREVENT CANCER (PART III):

Researchers at the Kaiser-Permanente HMO, funded by NIDA, followed 65,000 patients for nearly a decade, comparing cancer rates among non-smokers, tobacco smokers, and marijuana smokers. Tobacco smokers had massively higher rates of lung cancer and other cancers. Marijuana smokers who didn’t also use tobacco had no increase in risk of tobacco-related cancers or of cancer risk overall. In fact their rates of lung and most other cancers were slightly lower than non-smokers, though the difference did not reach statistical significance. Sidney, S. et al. Marijuana Use and Cancer Incidence (California, United States). Cancer Causes and Control. Vol. 8. Sept. 1997, p. 722-728.

2) OOPS, MARIJUANA MAY PREVENT CANCER (PART IV):

Donald Tashkin, a UCLA researcher whose work is funded by NIDA, did a case-control study comparing 1,200 patients with lung, head and neck cancers to a matched group with no cancer. Even the heaviest marijuana smokers had no increased risk of cancer, and had somewhat lower cancer risk than non-smokers (tobacco smokers had a 20-fold increased lung cancer risk). Tashkin D. Marijuana Use and Lung Cancer: Results of a Case-Control Study. American Thoracic Society International Conference. May 23, 2006.

1) MARIJUANA DOES HAVE MEDICAL VALUE:

In response to passage of California’s medical marijuana law, the White House had the Institute of Medicine (IOM) review the data on marijuana’s medical benefits and risks. The IOM concluded, "Nausea, appetite loss, pain and anxiety are all afflictions of wasting, and all can be mitigated by marijuana." While noting potential risks of smoking, the report added, "we acknowledge that there is no clear alternative for people suffering from chronic conditions that might be relieved by smoking marijuana, such as pain or AIDS wasting." The government’s refusal to acknowledge this finding caused co-author John A. Benson to tell the New York Times that the government "loves to ignore our report … they would rather it never happened." Joy, JE, Watson, SJ, and Benson, JA. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press. 1999. p. 159. See also, Harris, G. FDA Dismisses Medical Benefit From Marijuana. New York Times. Apr. 21, 2006

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mimmy
http://www.cannabiscollege.com

Denne siden har en del historie og informasjon rundt cannabis og bruk!

Kom igjen folkens! Sitter dere inne med en kilde så send den inn! :P

Takk sålangt JohnnyL og spesielt bøtteknott! :P

der jobber faktisk søsteren min (amsterdam) råder alle som skal til amsterdam å gå innom der... har selv vært der og skal til opplæring der neste gang jeg skal til amsterdam :P

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NorwegianBlue
degenhardt 2006.pdf
A vulnerability hypothesis is also consistent with the fact that the treated incidence of schizophrenia did not obviously increase during the 1970s and 1980s (85,86) when there were substantial increases in cannabis use among young adults in Australia and North America (38).

Noe Fekjær på blåkors har sagt i mange år.. (og jeg :P )

med forbehold om rett skrivemåte på hr. Fekjær/fesjær/feskjær/o.s.v.... (gidder ikke slåreopp akurat nå, skal lese flere rapporter)

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Silent_Reaper

Her e litt stoff for å spe på debatten :D

Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...h&DB=pubmed

Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

Recent advantages in cannabinoid research(litt gammel artikkel.. hehe, menmen):

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in trigeminal neuralgia:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_DocSum

Decreased depression in marijuana users:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_DocSum

The therapeutic potential of cannabis in multiple sclerosis:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_DocSum

Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle(litt bra denne.. Hehe):

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_docsum

The therapeutic potential of cannabis:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_DocSum

Cannabinoids and the immune system: potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases?:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...l=pubmed_DocSum

Håpe alle linkene fungerer.. Hvis ikke er det bare å søke etter tittelen i PubMed..

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Au de Bong

Veldig flott! Kan ikke noen sende et utvalg tekster til justisministeren, han hadde trengt å lese en del. Gjerne rapporter som kommer fra steder han kan tenkes stole mere på, feks WHO rapporten. Han har selv sagt at han ble med i juventes fordi han var interessert i noen jenter der, men det hjalp ikke og han sluttet. Likevel, jeg tror at mye av hans standpunkt har med grov uvitenhet og usikkerhet å gjøre. Dette kan gjøres noe med. Det er da verdt et forsøk!

Jeg synes forøvrig tiltaket med å kopiere tekst over på et eget dokument er viktig, da sikres kildene mere, man kan finne dem igjen på nettet nye steder også med mere informasjon. Dette kunne blitt noe a la dyrkehåndboka. Aktivisthåndboka er mitt forslag!

Bare en liten anmærkning. Jeg synes vi kan tørre å ha undersøkelser og lignende som viser uønskede resultater. Da kan man samle svar på hva som er galt med dem og hvorfor samme sted og man kan også legge opp henvendelser til nyere/andre undersøkelser som kommer til andre resultater.

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Ganjalf
Aktivisthåndboka er mitt forslag!

Godt tenkt!

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Hicksville

Pot Use Doesn’t Exacerbate Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Study Says

May 3, 2007 - London, United Kingdom

London, United Kingdom: Marijuana use is not associated with heightened symptoms of schizophrenia, according to data to be published in the journal Schizophrenia Research.

Investigators at London’s Institute of Psychiatry assessed whether the prior use of cannabis in patients with schizophrenia was associated with appreciable changes in schizophrenic symptoms compared with patients who had no history of marijuana use. Researchers performed logistic regression analysis on 757 volunteers with cases of first onset schizophrenia. Of these, 182 (24 percent) had reportedly used cannabis in the year prior to diagnosis, while 552 (73 percent) had not. (The remaining three percent had no data available.)

Investigators reported no statistically significant "differences in syptomatology between schizophrenic patients who were or were not cannabis users" after controlling for patients’ age, sex, and ethnicity.

Researchers also failed to find "any evidence that cannabis users with schizophrenia were more likely to have a family member with the disorder."

These findings "argue against a distinct schizophrenic-like psychosis caused by cannabis," authors concluded.

The study is the largest trial ever conducted to compare cannabis using and non-using schizophrenic patients, investigators said.

Although investigators did not assess whether cannabis consumers had greater odds of contracting schizophrenia compared to those who did not have a history of smoking pot, prior reviews have downplayed such an association. Most recently, Britain's Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) concluded in 2006, "For individuals, the current evidence suggests, at worst, that using cannabis increases lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia by one percent."

A separate 2006 report by Britain’s Beckley Foundation speculated that cannabis may "precipitate schizophrenia in people who are already vulnerable" to the disease, but it also acknowledged that the "increased rates of cannabis use in the last thirty years have not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the rate of psychosis in the population."

NORML Advisory Board Member Mitch Earleywine, author of the book Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence (Oxford University Press), said: "Schizophrenia is a rare and heterogenous disorder that requires both biological and environmental contributors. I hope this latest work helps to counter the idea that there exists a distinct psychotic disorder related to cannabis as well as other equally simplistic, and often inaccurate, notions regarding the use of cannabis and mental illness."

A study co-authored by Earleywine and published in the journal Psychiatry Research in 2005 reported that cannabis use typically follows rather than precedes behavior suggestive of schizophrenia. "These findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits," the study concluded.

For more information, please contact Paul Armentano, NORML Senior Policy Analyst, at: paul@norml.org Full text of the study, "A comparison of symptoms and family history in schizophrenia with and without prior cannabis use: Implications for the concept of cannabis psychosis," will appear in the journal Schizophrenia Research. A discussion of this study may be downloaded from the May 2, 2007 edition of the NORML Daily AudioStash at: http://www.normlaudiostash.com

Additional information may be found in the NORML paper, "Cannabis, Mental Health and Context," available online at:

http://norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6798

DL: http://norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=7253

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Hicksville

Billigere alkohol farligere enn hasj

http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article219300.ece

Cannabis arrests fall by a third

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4216283.stm

Cannabis economy brings in £11 billion

http://observer.guardian.co.uk/drugs/story...,887240,00.html

Ett tusen i tog for fri hasj i Oslo

http://www.abcnyheter.no/node/45782

Fremskrittpartiets Ungdom - Rusmidler

http://www.fpu.no/index.php?option=com_con...7&Itemid=73

Færre folk røyker cannabis hvis det blir lovlig

http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2006/10/15/479792.html

Hasj ikke så farlig som alkohol

http://www.dagbladet.no/nyheter/2001/10/27/290920.html

Hobbynarkomane vanligere enn vi tror

http://www.adressa.no/nyheter/sortrondelag/article831695.ece

I'm 120 but my joints are OK

http://www.thesun.co.uk/article/0,,2-2006560113,00.html

Jeg vil fortsette å bryte loven daglig

http://www.nettavisen.no/innenriks/article815102.ece

Marihuana bedre enn alkohol?

http://www.nrk.no/programmer/tv/puls/spor_...rtene/1.2216691

Marijuana Not a Factor in Driving Accidents

http://www.news.utoronto.ca/bin/19990329a.asp

Ruskampanjer har ingen virkning

http://www.dagbladet.no/magasinet/2007/04/18/498111.html

Vil røyke hasj lovlig

http://www.vg.no/pub/vgart.hbs?artid=105089

Takk til 'superstein' for arbeidet med å samle sammen lenkene.

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NatuRal3

SOURCES:

Reports that show the war on drugs has failed:

http://idpc.net/publications/failure-regime-selected-publications

Reports that show alternative approaches of decriminalisation and regulation are working:

http://idpc.net/publications/alternative-strategies-selected-publications

General report on drug law reform in practice:

http://www.tni.org/report/legislative-innovation-drug-policy

The Global Comission on Drug Policy that will call on the UN to end the war on drugs

http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/Documents.aspx

Drug War by the Numbers

http://www.drugpolicy.org/facts/drug-war-numbers

Final Report of the Latin American Comission on Drugs and Democracy

http://www.drogasedemocracia.org/English/Destaques.asp?IdRegistro=8

General report on drug law reform in practice:

http://www.tni.org/report/legislative-innovation-drug-policy

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MarionSi

пчелиное маточное молочко как отличить подделку

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adkz8bjd

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